This week I was lucky enough to attend the Annual Trustees’ Lecture at the Arts and Media School, Islington. It’s always a treat. Last year was delivered by the stimulating and entertaining Grayson Perry and this year it was by the highly sensible and eternally affable Tim Brighouse.
Tim Brighouse delivered his lecture ‘When Governments ask for the World’, which you can also read here in full.
One of the most striking things he pointed out was just how education has changed through the ages – and how the power has shifted from the classroom practitioners to the Secretary of State for Education who has more and more powers over increasing levels of detail in the classroom. I have attempted to summarise it below
Five Ages of Education
|Age||Years||Assumptions||Powers of the secretary of state|
|Trust and Optimism||1944 -1968||1) Central government’s role was to set the general policy guidelines only; the detail and most power should be left to local government which was closer to the people and therefore better able to understand their needs.
2) Political freedom, moral freedom, social justice resonated with politicians from all parties. Education was a ‘good thing’ and we needed more of it. Schools were built; Colleges of Further Education, Teacher Training Colleges, Colleges of Advanced Technology – later turned into Polytechnics (and ultimately Universities) – were created and run by LEAs. Local Authorities also created a Youth Service, Adult Education Centres, Teachers Centres and Outdoor Pursuit Centres for residential trips as they also founded a network of public libraries and youth employment services (later called the Careers Service).
3) It was not for governments to interfere in matters best left to professionals. In education ‘matters best left to the professionals’ meant what should be taught and how it should be taught
1) Removing air-raid shelters
2) Securing a sufficient supply of suitably qualified teachers
3) Rationing scarce capital resources for new buildings
|Doubt and Disillusion||1968-1980||1) Pupils weren’t being taught properly or the right things
2) ‘Education isn’t working’ theme
3) Central Government – at least in England if not in the other parts of the UK – was determined to act
|Markets and Managerialism||1980-2015||1) ‘Choice’ (for parents), ‘diversity’ (of provision and types of school) ‘autonomy’ (for schools) and ‘accountability’ (by schools and local authorities).
2) A belief in market forces and competition as a means of finding a solution to most problems.
3) Seeing now the words ‘Equity’ and ‘Equality’ and they demanded regulation by the state since market forces, though never publicly acknowledged, couldn’t be relied upon to deliver those ideals.
4) Markets and competition tend to produce winners and losers – sometimes more of the latter than the former. So we have managerialism by the state.
|Confusion||2015-2020||1) No national agreement on what the purpose of education is.
2) Disproportionate focus on Literacy and Mathematics with little mention Music, Art, Drama, Dance or outdoor education or residential.
3) Fragmentation of the system.
|Over 2,000 and very little accountability. It extends to the Secretary of State defining in detail what shall be taught, how it should be taught and when it should be taught in England. This approach is not replicated in Wales Scotland or Northern Ireland.|
|Ambition and Partnerships||2020 –||1) An accountability system where achievement as well as attainment is assessed, where there is an overt attempt to assess the progress of children in terms of their health and well-being, how they are able to be team players especially in solving inter-disciplinary problems which are the hallmark of the modern world, and how they are intelligent rather than how in intelligent they are.
2) Access to schools would need to be fair rather than the competitive scramble it is now.
3) A shared language of school improvement.
If you found this interesting, you might want to explore this timeline dating back as far as http://www.educationengland.org.uk/history/timeline.html 600 A.D